Tag Archives: Public Policy

Canada at the Polls 2019: A New Mandate?

With the Canadian federal election coming up in October, our forthcoming political science title is certainly well-timed. Set to publish this August, Absent Mandate develops the crucial concept of policy mandates – distinguished from other interpretations of election outcomes – and addresses the disconnect between election issues and government actions. In this post, the authors discuss the upcoming election: what we can expect to see? Has anything really changed since elections back in 1965? And are Canadian electoral politics now following a new, or even unfamiliar, path?

By Harold D. Clarke, Jane Jenson, Lawrence LeDuc, and Jon H. Pammett

The 2019 federal election will soon be upon us. The period leading up to the vote has seen the current government lagging in the polls, but there has also been no clarity as to the public’s preference for the alternatives. Negative campaigning is already well underway, and polls reveal a considerable amount of public discontent with the political process in general. Big issues, like environmental protection, the energy supply, the state of the economy, and national unity are the subjects of media commentary. The party leaders have been unveiling policy announcements keyed to their forthcoming campaigns, and trying to showcase their strengths at dealing with today’s problems.

Does anything in these patterns suggest that Canadian electoral politics is following a new road or even an unfamiliar path? Not really, as we show in our new book, Absent Mandate: Strategies and Choices in Canadian Elections.

This book has its roots in several previous books bearing similar titles that we published more than twenty years ago. Those books addressed two key questions that have always engaged students of elections and voting, namely “how do voters decide?” and “what decides elections?” The national election studies since 1965 that have provided the data for our analyses consistently reveal that Canadian voters hold flexible partisan attachments, that election campaigns are often volatile, that the bases of party support are weak and unstable over time, and that public discontent with politics and politicians is high. We documented these patterns since then, as have numerous other scholars.

The Absent Mandate books, however, introduced a third question that was less common than those associated with voting behaviour and election outcomes. That question – “what do elections decide?” – spoke to the linkages between elections and public policy, thus addressing one of the key issues of democratic governance and its normative foundations. If the electoral process, as it generally unfolds in Canadian federal politics, does not produce a mandate for the subsequent direction of public policy, then what can we reasonably expect elections to accomplish beyond a rearrangement of the actors?

The third of the Absent Mandate volumes, published in 1996 and subtitled Canadian Electoral Politics in an Era of Restructuring, concluded that despite all of the political and economic changes that had taken place in the federation during the first half of the 1990s, there were substantial continuities with the decades of the 1970s and 1980s, including the absence of policy mandates. Among those continuities was the widespread feeling that parties could not be trusted to offer real choices among policy alternatives in elections. Indeed, by the 1990s, all parties had accepted the broad outlines of a neoliberal policy agenda. They framed policy discussions around issues on which there was substantial agreement, and focused their campaigns on the attributes of the party leaders, promising better performance in government as they shaped their appeals to the electorate.

Indeed, a two-way process of learning was underway throughout these decades, sustaining what we have labelled the brokerage mould. Parties had learned that their electoral coalitions are fragile creations that require constant renewal, and voters had learned that elections are vehicles for the expression of discontent with few consequences for substantive policy change. The electoral system has also played a role in this process because it limits the choices available to voters to the candidates in a single constituency. Turnout in federal elections began a steep decline in 1993, partly for these reasons but also reflecting generational changes.

The first two decades of the twenty-first century saw many changes – in the party system, in styles of leadership, in the social and economic issues confronting Canada, and in the technology of election campaigns, to mention only a few. The reunification of the Conservative party under the leadership of Stephen Harper in 2003 ended a period of party fragmentation on the right and positioned the Conservatives to return to power with a minority government in 2006. Harper seemed to be a different type of conservative – coming from the West, more ideologically driven, and (according to some) harbouring a “hidden agenda.” Yet, even under a leader such as Harper, electoral politics continued to operate within a brokerage mould. The Harper years, including a majority government in 2011, failed to deliver the type of sea change in federal politics that many had expected. Following the Conservatives’ defeat in the 2015 federal election by the resurgent Liberals led by Justin Trudeau, an observer could easily conclude that the political landscape looked increasingly familiar. The “two-and-a-half” federal party system, long described as the norm in older Canadian political science textbooks, seemed to have reappeared. Indeed, a simple macro comparison between the year of the first Canadian Election Study and the 2015 outcome documents remarkable similarities.

Party vote percentages, 2015 and 1965
2015 1965
Liberal 39.5% 40.2%
Conservative 31.9% 32.4%
NDP 19.7% 17.9%
Other 9.1% 9.5%

Of course, some things are different. Election campaigns, building on new technologies and social media, can increasingly channel the negative feelings of voters, as “attack ads” have become a staple of partisan politics. Yet leaders, and their strengths and weaknesses, remain the focus of much political debate, and parties’ issue agendas are limited to performance appeals such as “growing the economy” or “sustaining health care.” Such valence issues are ones on which there is widespread consensus, and political debate focuses on “how to do the job” and who is most capable of doing it. More specific policy commitments are sometimes offered, but these tend to be small programs targeted to specific groups and co-exist well within the framework of a broad neoliberal policy consensus. All of the parties participate in political marketing utilizing the new technologies available. But these strategies appear remarkably similar to those associated with the brokerage mould that had characterized the earlier periods. If there was a “shift to the right” as some had forecast with the rise of Harper, multiple parties appear to have participated in varying degrees in a movement in that direction. For example, it is telling that all of the current parties support the recently negotiated USMCA, the successor agreement to NAFTA. As we began to write Absent Mandate: Strategies and Choices in Canadian Elections, we were more struck by the continuities that existed in the shape and style of Canadian electoral politics than by the many changes that had taken place over the past two decades.

Now, with a federal election only a few months away, would we venture to make predictions, based on over 50 years of data and four books on this subject? We know enough about the fundamental elements of Canadian politics to realize that election outcomes are inherently unpredictable. Nonetheless, we can readily predict some things. The forthcoming campaign will be a volatile one. This will be because flexible partisan attachments coupled with widespread discontent facilitate, indeed foster, substantial movement by voters between the parties or movement into or out of the electorate. In each of the last two federal elections (2011 and 2015) there was considerable volatility in the polls over the last few weeks of the campaign. We would also expect to see parties concentrating on one or more valence issues such as the government’s economic performance and environmental protection, as well as efforts to highlight the attributes of party leaders and the shortcomings of their opponents. And given these entrenched characteristics of Canadian electoral politics, we can also predict that any meaningful policy mandate emanating from such a campaign will continue to be absent.

Want to learn more from Absent Mandate: Strategies and Choices in Canadian Elections?

  • Pre-order your copy of the book.
  • Read an exclusive chapter.
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Harold D. Clarke is the Ashbel Smith Professor in the School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas.

Jane Jenson is a professor emerita in the Department of Political Science at the Université de Montréal.

Lawrence LeDuc is a professor emeritus in the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto.

Jon H. Pammett is a distinguished research professor in the Department of Political Science at Carleton University.

Our Friday Feature for #OAWeek is on Canadian Public Policy!

Our final feature for Open Access Week 2016 is dedicated to Canadian Public Policy (CPP), Canada’s foremost journal examining economic and social policy!

The aim of the journal is to stimulate research and discussion of public policy problems in Canada.

It is a great resource for a wide readership including decision makers and advisers in business organizations and governments, and policy researchers in private institutions and universities.
What’s more is that readers can access a number of CPP articles for free!

Here are some great free-to-read articles that are featured in recent issues of CPP:

In addition to these articles, readers can also access entire supplemental issues of CPP for free! Here are some recent supplemental issues:

You can access CPP online here.

Don’t forget to sign up for our email list!

International Open Access Week 2016 takes place from October 24–30. For more information, please visit http://www.openaccessweek.org/

Happy Reading!

The Hill Times’ Top 100 Best Books for 2012

The Hill Times has released their 100 Best Books for 2012 and 24 University of Toronto Press titles have made the cut! Here are the UTP books in alphabetical order.

Access to Medicines as a Human Right: Implications for Pharmaceutical Industry Responsibility edited by Lisa Forman and Jillian Clare Kohler.

Arming and Disarming: A History of Gun Control in Canada by R. Blake Brown

Canada Looks South: In Search of an Americas Policy edited by Peter McKenna

Canada’s National Security in the Post-9/11 World: Strategy, Interests, and Threats edited by David S. McDonough

Canada: What It Is, What It Can Be by Roger Martin and James Milway

Canadians and the Natural Environment to the Twenty-First Century by Neil S. Forkey

Changing Politics of Canadian Social Policy, Second Edition by James J. Rice and Michael J. Prince

Dominance and Decline: Making Sense of Recent Canadian Elections by Elisabeth Gidengil, Neil Nevitte, André Blais, Joanna Everitt, and Patrick Fournier. This title was also chosen as one of the Top 25 Editor’s Picks.

Dreams and Due Diligence: Till and McCulloch’s Stem Cell Discovery and Legacy by Joe Sornberger

Empire’s Ally: Canada and the War in Afghanistan edited by Jerome Klassen and Greg Albo

Global Ecopolitics: Crisis, Governance, and Justice by Peter J. Stoett

Making Medicare: New Perspectives on the History of Medicare in Canada edited by Gregory P. Marchildon

None is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948 by Irving Abella and Harold Troper

North America in Question: Regional Integration in an Era of Economic Turbulence edited by Jeffrey Ayres and Laura Macdonald

Our War on Ourselves: Rethinking Science, Technology, and Economic Growth by Willem H. Vanderburg

Politics: An Introduction to the Modern Democratic State, Fourth Edition by Larry Johnston

Secret Service: Political Policing in Canada from the Fenians to Fortress America by Reg Whitaker, Gregory S. Kealey, and Andrew Parnaby

Social Conservatives and Party Politics in Canada and the United States by James Farney

The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada, Fifth Edition by Patrick Malcolmson and Richard Myers

The Democratic Imagination: Envisioning Popular Power in the Twenty-First Century by James Cairns and Alan Sears

The Great Reversal: How We Let Technology Take Control of the Planet by David Edward Tabachnick

The Labyrinth of North American Identities by Philip Resnick

Three Bio-Realms: Biotechnology and the Governance of Food, Health, and Life in Canada by G. Bruce Doern and Michael J. Prince

Check out the full list here. We’d like to congratulate all the authors whose books were featured on the list.

The Hill Times 100 Best Books – 2011 Edition

We are thrilled to announce that 18 UTP books have been listed on the Hill Times’ Best Books of 2011 List for political, government, public policy, and Canadian history reads.

Number 6 on the list is Beyond the Nation edited by Alexander Freund.

Stephen Clarkson and Matto Mildenberger’s Dependent America? came in at number 20 on the list.

Engendering Migrant Health edited by Denise Spitzer is number 24 on the list.

Number 32 on the list is A.E. Safarian’s Foreign Ownership of Canadian Industry, Third Edition.

Coming in at number 37 is Gambling for Profit by Kerry G.E. Chambers.

Katherine Fierlbeck’s Health Care in Canada is at number 42.

At number 48 is Immigration Dialectic by Harald Bauder.

The Natural City, edited by Ingrid Leman Stefanovic and Stephen Bede Scharper, is number 62.

Closely followed by The New African Diaspora in Vancouver by Gillian Creese at number 63.

David Edward Tabachnick and Toivo Koivukoski came in at number 67 with On Oligarchy.

Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics edited by Grace Skogstad came in at number 73.

Number 74 on the list is The Politics of Race, Second Edition by Jill Vickers and Annette Isaac.

Will C. van den Hoonaard’s Seduction of Ethics is number 83.

Number 85 is Richard U’Ren’s Social Perspective.

Number 86 is Social Support, Health, and Illness by Ranjan Roy.

Number 87 is Greg Pyrcz with The Study of Politics.

The third edition of Thinking Government by David Johnston came in at number 90.

Elke Winter rounds out the list with Us, Them, and Others at number 96.

Congratulations to all those who made the list!

*Note: the list is organized alphabetically by title